Multiple alignments are at the core of bioinformatical analysis. Often the first step in a chain of bioinformatical analyses is to construct a multiple alignment of a number of homologs DNA or protein sequences. However, despite their frequent use, the development of multiple alignment algorithms remains one of the algorithmically most challenging areas in bioinformatical research.
Constructing a multiple alignment corresponds to developing a hypothesis of how a number of sequences have evolved through the processes of character substitution, insertion and deletion. The input to multiple alignment algorithms is a number of homologous sequences i.e. sequences that share a common ancestor and most often also share molecular function. The generated alignment is a table (see figure 19.16) where each row corresponds to an input sequence and each column corresponds to a position in the alignment. An individual column in this table represents residues that have all diverged from a common ancestral residue. Gaps in the table (commonly represented by a '-') represent positions where residues have been inserted or deleted and thus do not have ancestral counterparts in all sequences.